Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukaemia (JMML) is a very rare type of chronic childhood leukaemia. It is also sometimes called juvenile chronic myelogenous leukaemia (JCML).
JMML is most common in children under four years of age. As with many types of cancers, we do not yet know the cause of JMML. Children with a genetic disorder called neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) are more at risk of developing JMML. But this only accounts for about 1 in 10 cases.
The treatment for JMML is usually a stem cell transplant. This is where doctors replace the damaged stem cells with healthy ones taken from a donor, often a brother or sister. At the moment this is the only form of treatment that can possibly cure JMML. Unfortunately, this type of treatment is only suitable for some children. Doctors and scientists are trying to find a more effective treatment for this disease as sadly, it is still difficult to cure.