Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a brief but intense attack of swelling in the brain and spinal cord which damages the brains myelin (coating of nerve fibres). It often starts after a bacterial or viral infection and occasionally after vaccination. It is causes by the body’s immune system attacking the healthy cells.
Symptoms include fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, seizures and can cause patients to go into a coma.
It can be fatal but up to 75% of people make a full recovery although they can be left with some form of disability.